Background Determinants of Antenatal Care Utilization among Pregnant Women in Akwa Ibom, Nigeria


  • O. O Ibikunle
  • S Asa
  • A. I Ibikunle
  • W Breiger


Antenatal Care, Determinants, Nigeria


This study assessed the utilization pattern of Antenatal care with the view of identifying demographic factors affecting the utilization of antenatal care (ANC) among women of reproductive age in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Population based cross sectional survey was adopted in this study. The investigation was conducted between September and October 2007 from the catchment areas of ANC offering Primary Health Centers (PHCs) in five (5) local government areas in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. 1,061 women of reproductive age who gave birth in the last 6 months were used for the study. Result of this study showed that 65% of the respondents attended ANC with majority being between the ages of 25 – 35 years(p=0.008), Pentecostals(p=0.000), married(p=0.000) and having either secondary or higher education(p=0.000). The odds of attending ANC is statistically significant for women between the ages of 25 and 35 years(p=0.037), married women(p=0.000) and women with secondary(p=0.000) and higher education(p=0.000). The odds of higher ANC visits (≥ 4) are statistically significant with married women (p=0.01) and respondents with secondary (p=0.01) and higher education (p=0.00). The odds increases as the ANC visits increases (married: OR – 1.9(p=0.004), 2.2(p=0.001), 4.8(p=0.011); secondary education: OR – 2.3(p=0.01), 5.8(p=0.000), 12.1(p=0.016); higher education: OR – 11.4(p=0.000), 33.7(p=0.000), 64.7(p=0.000). This study thus concluded that demographic characteristics especially age; marital status and educational level significantly affect ANC attendance and the frequency of ANC visits.