Ife Social Sciences Review https://issr.oauife.edu.ng/index.php/issr <p><strong><em>Ife Social Sciences Review</em></strong> is a journal of the Faculty of Social Sciences, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife.<em> Its </em>an international and interdisciplinary forum for the dissemination of <em>scholarly papers in the broad areas of social and management sciences. </em>We publish original research articles (both empirical and theoretical), reviews, position papers and commentaries on <em>social and management</em> issues, to inform current research, policy and practice in all areas of common interest to social scientists, management practitioners, and policy makers. The journal publishes material relevant to any aspect of <em>social and management sciences</em> from a wide range of social science disciplines (anthropology, economics, epidemiology, demography, geography, management , political science , policy, psychology, and sociology), and materials relevant to the social sciences from any of the professions concerned with physical, built environment, and management, health policy and organization. We encourage material which is of general interest to an international readership. The journal will be published two times a year- June and December.</p> Faculty of Social Sciences, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria en-US Ife Social Sciences Review 0331-3115 Organisational Culture and Employee Engagement in the Banking Industry in Benin City https://issr.oauife.edu.ng/index.php/issr/article/view/118 <p>This study empirically examined the influence of organisational culture on employee engagement in the deposit money banks in Benin City. The specific objectives of the study were to examine the influence of power, role, task, person and innovative oriented culture on employee engagement in the deposit money banks. The study adopted the cross-sectional survey research design. It specifically made use of data collected from three hundred and thirty-one (331) staff of Deposit Money Banks (MDB) in Benin City. This response rate represents 98.8% of the total sample size. Data collected were analysed using descriptive and Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regression. The study revealed that power-oriented culture negatively and insignificantly influenced employee engagement. It also revealed that role and task-oriented culture negatively and significantly influenced employee engagement. However, person and innovative oriented culture positively but significantly influenced employee engagement. From these findings, the study recommended that management of banks place less emphasis on the practices of role-oriented culture by allowing employees use their skills when getting work done; de-emphasize the practices of task-oriented culture by giving employees the flexibility to perform their job, place more emphasis on the practices of person-oriented culture by taking a personal interest in the problems of subordinates as well as encourage employees to take risks and engage in experimentation.</p> Evelyn Umemezia Samuel J. Osifo Copyright (c) 2021 Ife Social Science Review 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 29 1 1 13 Mutiny, Desertion and State Response in the Nigeria Armed Forces and its Implications https://issr.oauife.edu.ng/index.php/issr/article/view/119 <p>There is a growing number of mutinies and desertions within the rank and file in the Armed Forces of Nigeria (AFN). While these acts have attendant implications on the military architecture and spiraling incidents of insecurity in the country, there is still a paucity of scholarship in this regard. This article examines the triggers of mutiny and desertion within the AFN, state response and implications on the AFN and national security. Using documentaries, media reports and self-made videos by some of the actors, the article finds that mutiny and desertions are ways of protests and that they are caused majorly by low morale, poor welfare, job dissatisfactions, and corruption and in spite of the state responses through disciplinary approach, the acts of mutinies and desertions have continued thereby having profound implication on the morale of the AFN, civil-military relations as well as the general insecurity across the country. The article concludes that desertions and mutiny have and will continue as a result of the response by the state which focusses on discipline and non-disclosure at the expense of the overall welfare, needs and satisfaction of the members of the AFN. The article recommends among other things the need to address the causes of mutiny and desertion.</p> Olasupo Thompson Copyright (c) 2021 Ife Social Sciences Review 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 29 1 14 30 Overlapping Stigmas as Predictors of Attitudes towards People Living with HIV/AIDS among Youth Healthcare Professionals in Nigeria https://issr.oauife.edu.ng/index.php/issr/article/view/120 <p>Living with HIV is often connected with some overlapping experiences that are stigmatising and could aggravate attitude towards people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). This study examined the influence of overlapping stigmas (homophobia, ethnic discrimination, sexism, injection drug use, and sex work) on the attitude towards PLWHA of serving healthcare professionals in the National Youth Service Corps (NYSC) Nigeria. NYSC members comprised fresh Nigerian graduates of tertiary institutions who were 30 years and below on mandatory service to the nation. NYSC members totalling 325 participants responded to structured psychological scales. This study utilised a survey research design and employed appropriate statistical analysis such as regression. The results revealed that overlapping stigmas jointly accounted for (55.1%) of the total variation in Attitude towards PLWHA. All the overlapping stigmas significantly correlated with Attitude towards PLWHA. The implication of the findings was discussed in line with the decline of HIV/AIDS and implementation of the agenda of Sustainable Development Goals.</p> Olusola I. Akinbobola Deborah F. Onisile Ibukunoluwa B. Bello Copyright (c) 2021 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 29 1 31 40 Prevalence of Primary and Secondary Deviance among Secondary School Students in Southwestern Nigeria https://issr.oauife.edu.ng/index.php/issr/article/view/121 <p>The study examined the prevalence of primary and secondary deviance among secondary school students in Southwestern Nigeria. It also determined the relationship between the prevalence of primary and secondary deviance and students’ gender and family structure. The sample size comprised 627 students selected using a multi-stage sampling procedure. A researcher-designed and validated instrument tagged ‘’Deviance Behaviour Scale (DBS)’’ and Socio-metric Guide were used to collect data for the study. Frequency counts, percentage and Chi-square were used to analyse the data used for the study. Results revealed that primary deviance was more prevalent among secondary school students in the study area. Also, while a significant relationship was found between the prevalence of primary and secondary deviance and students’ gender, there was no significant relationship between the prevalence of primary and secondary deviance and students’ family structure in the study area. The study concluded that that primary deviance was more prevalent among secondary schools’ students in Southwestern Nigeria. However, while students’ gender was a determinant factor of engagement in deviant behaviours but family structure was not.</p> Folakemi T. Fatoki Copyright (c) 2021 Ife Social Sciences Review 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 29 1 41 50 Psychosocial well-being across Nigeria’s Geo-Political Regions: Insights from Decade-long General Household Surveys. https://issr.oauife.edu.ng/index.php/issr/article/view/122 <p>The study examined household food consumption patterns and probable health implications using nutritional status of infants as major index. Data utilised were extracted from the Nigeria’s General Household Survey Report 2010 - 2019, particularly report from Wave 1 to Wave 4. Variables of interest are types and percentages of food consumed by households (postplanting) in different regions of Nigeria and nutritional status of infants under five years. Analysis of secondary data was conducted using descriptive statistics and comparative analysis to identify changes and trends across the study sites over time. Across the country, the study found a high preference and intake of dietary carbohydrates like grains and flour, starchy roots, tubers and plantains as well as vegetables and fats and oil. North-South variances were observed in the consumption of grains and flour. Fewer percentage of households consumed fruits and milk products, though with slight increase over time. Evidence of nutritional transition and a shift to baked and processed products was found, mostly in the southern and urban parts of the country. Many (42.9%) under-five children were stunted (low height for age) and were underweight (21.3%), while few (7.0%) experienced wasting (low weight for height). Past interventions on nutrition in the country have not truly improved nutritional practices in the general population. To avert the human cost of food insecurity and nutritional deficiencies, interventions should target the vulnerable and disadvantaged groups in the food chain.</p> Bashirat A. Ibrahim Kafayat Aminu 3Fausat M. Ibrahim Copyright (c) 2021 Ife Social Sciences Review 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 29 1 51 62 Assessment of Recommended Textbooks for Senior Secondary Schools Government Curriculum Implementation in Osun State, Nigeria. https://issr.oauife.edu.ng/index.php/issr/article/view/123 <p>The study assessed relevance of the contents of recommended Government textbooks as specified in the Government curriculum. It examined appropriateness of learning activities provided in the recommended Government textbooks and finally determined the readability of the recommended Government textbooks used for teaching in Osun State secondary schools. The study employed descriptive survey research design. The study population comprised teachers of both private and public secondary schools as well as Government textbooks used in senior secondary school in the state. The sample for the study consisted of 120 Government teachers selected using multistage sampling procedure and six recommended Government textbooks. Thirteen Local Government Areas (LGAs) were selected from the State’s three Senatorial Districts using simple random sampling technique. Five private and five public secondary schools were selected from each LGA using simple random sampling technique. From the selected schools, one Government teacher was selected purposively. Six recommended Government textbooks were purposively selected based on their popularity with teachers and students. The instrument used in this study was Adapted Textbook Evaluation Model of Richard (ATEMR, 2002), which emphasized Pre-evaluation Analysis (PeA), Pre-evaluation Evaluation (PeE) and Evaluation During and After Use (EDAU) respectively. The reliability coefficient of the test was 0.78 using Cronbach’s alpha indicating that the instrument was reliable. Data collected were analysed using frequency counts, percentages and means statistical method of data analysis. The findings showed that the recommended Government textbooks used in Osun State secondary schools were readable for the students. The study concluded that the contents of recommended Government textbooks were relevant and reflect those specified in the Government curriculum; contained appropriate learning activities and that the recommended Government textbooks used in teaching Government secondary schools in Osun State secondary school were readable.</p> John Ogbewee Babatunde A. Adeyemi Copyright (c) 2021 Ife Social Sciences Review 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 29 1 63 72 Relevance of Learning Theories to English Language Teaching https://issr.oauife.edu.ng/index.php/issr/article/view/124 <p>This study explores the relevance of learning theories to English language teaching. The significance of learning theories to language teaching cannot be overemphasized. Learning theories help teachers on how best to facilitate learning. They help in motivating students’ learning and the outcome. The complex nature of language teaching and learning makes it difficult to teach effectively without having adequate knowledge of those theories that are related to teaching English as a second language. Different cultures and background determine the unique experiences of learners which consequently have impact on learning and assimilation. On this basis, the study recommends the application of theoretical knowledge to teaching English language, and provides teachers with useful background information on how to deliver lessons skilfully and more effectively.</p> Beatrice B. Adeyemi Copyright (c) 2021 Ife Social Sciences Review 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 29 1 73 80 Parental Factors and Sexual Health Profile of Students in Public Tertiary Institutions in Osun State https://issr.oauife.edu.ng/index.php/issr/article/view/126 <p>This study examined how sexual health of young people can be influenced by parental factors such as education, marital status and parent-child communication. The population comprised of all students in tertiary institutions in Osun State. Three hundred students were selected from each of the institutions using convenience sampling technique. ‘Parental Variables and Sexual Health Scale” was used to collect data. Data was analysed using frequency distribution and chi-square. Results revealed that Parents marital status is statistically associated with being sexually active (χ2 = 10.97; p&lt;0.01); use of contraception (χ2 = 13.82; p&lt;0.03) and indulging in homosexual practices (χ2 = 10.89; p&lt;0.01). The result also showed that there is no statistically significant relationship between mother/mother figure’s level of education and father/father figure’s level of education with transactional sex, multiple partners and being homosexually active. Majority (45.33%) of respondents stated that their mother is the most important source of knowledge on sex-related matters; 7.33% believe it is their father. It was concluded that education has no influence on young peoples’ sexual practice. It was recommended that fathers should be educated on how to overcome constraints of traditional norms, limited information on sexual health and poor communication skills as regards sexual health with young people.</p> Tolulope O. Ojo Olufemiwa N. Makinde Mary O. Obiyan Copyright (c) 2021 Ife Social Sciences Review 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 29 1 81 91 Constraints to Air Cargo Operations in Nigeria https://issr.oauife.edu.ng/index.php/issr/article/view/127 <p>Air cargo handling at airports serves as means of revenue generation in addition to passenger operations. Efficiency of airports with cargo operations requires that cargo traffic flows seamlessly. Inefficient cargo operations abound at airports when the traffic flow is constrained with myriads of factors. This study examines the level of relationships that exist among some factors that serve as constraints to the development of air cargo operations in Nigeria. Using random sampling technique, 337 respondents who were majorly cargo agents and customs officers were sampled at Lagos airport, Nigeria. The study employed questionnaire administration to collect data. The questionnaire provided respondents with items in Likert scale to rank in order of significance as each serve to influence the development of air cargo operations in Nigeria. Spearman’s rank correlation analysis was carried out to examine the relationships between the selected variables from literature. The effect of corruption, poverty, exchange rate, customs operations, security, cargo and airline traffic were found to have high positive and linear correlation, while cargo traffic correlates negatively with inefficient customs operations. The study provides the need for policy instrument that gives attention to efficient operations for increasing air cargo traffic by means of trade and exchanges in Nigeria.</p> Adedotun J. Adenigbo Copyright (c) 2021 Ife Social Sciences Review 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 29 1 92 99 Government Size and Economic Growth in ECOWAS Sub-Region: A Test of the Non-Monotonic Hypothesis https://issr.oauife.edu.ng/index.php/issr/article/view/128 <p>This study analysed the statistical properties of government size and economic growth as well as testing the non-monotonic hypothesis in the ECOWAS region following panel analytical procedure. Secondary data on population, unemployment, exchange rate, consumer prices, export, and import of goods and services, aggregated government expenditure and gross domestic product were sourced mainly from World Bank Data Base. Following the non-linear approach, the result of panel least square confirms the non-monotonic hypothesis in favour of U-shaped curve as against an inverted U-shaped (∩) which is a proof of Armey curve scenario. The result also showed that while exchange rate and money supply were not significant, unemployment and import of goods and services significantly contributed to the low pace of economic growth in this economic sub-region. Export of goods and services was found to have positive and significant impact on growth. The policy implication is that while each of the member countries should adhere strictly to the optimal (min) of about 42% as the starting point for a meaningful economic growth in line with Big-Push theory, each country should equally boost export trade; restrict import; and as well tackling unemployment and exchange rate problems for rapid economic growth. The study concluded that the U-shaped non-monotonic relation existed between government size and economic growth in the ECOWAS sub-region.</p> Matthew A. Dada Sunday M. A. Posu Oluseun A. Adedeji Olutunji T. Ojo Copyright (c) 2021 Ife Social Sciences Review 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 29 1 100 116 Assessment of COVID–19 Pandemic Risk Behaviour among Rural Households in Nigeria: Implication for Food Security https://issr.oauife.edu.ng/index.php/issr/article/view/129 <p>The COVID-19 pandemic has badly affected the rural population in income generation, productivity and food security. This study assessed COVID-19 pandemic risk behaviour among rural households in Nigeria using data from the Nigeria COVID-19 National Longitudinal Phone survey (NLPS), (2020) conducted by National Bureau of Statistics in collaboration with the World Bank. Descriptive and regression analysis were used to analyze the sample size of 1195 rural households across all the six geopolitical zones of Nigeria. From the findings of this study; hand-washing (97.1%), avoiding crowded places/gathering (91.0%) and avoiding travelling (81.1%) were the three most reported risk-reduction measures known by the rural households. In many of the rural households, at least a member had to skip a meal; ran out of food in some households; and at least one adult went without a meal as a result of movement restrictions occasioned by the COVID-19 pandemic. The overall Poisson regression model showed a joint significant influence of awareness of identified COVID-19 risk-reduction measures and self-perception of risk on risk-reduction behavior (LR Chi=13.23, p&lt;0.01). We also found a positive and significant relationship between awareness and behaviour (IRR=1.022, p&lt;0.01). However, self-perception of risk was not significantly related to risk-reduction behavior. The study concluded that although the awareness of preventive measures was high but did not translate to expected behavioural change. This may put most productive rural household members at risk of infection and further aggravate the food insecurity in Nigeria. Hence, Government should change the sensitization strategy on COVID-19 preventive measures in order to ensure the needed behavioural change among the rural populace in Nigeria.</p> Olubunmi A. Bamiwuye Olaide K. Akintunde Khadijat O. Olanrewaju Adetunji L. Kehinde Kabiru A. Shittu Ayodeji O. Adedire Copyright (c) 2021 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 29 1 117 128 COVID-19 and New Wave of Poverty in Nigeria https://issr.oauife.edu.ng/index.php/issr/article/view/130 <p>This study attempts to explore the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the poverty status of vulnerable people in Nigeria and to also examine the impact of Government’s several poverty eradication programmes targeted at reducing the poverty rate in the country. The study adopted qualitative and descriptive analysis of data gathered through integrative theoretical review of relevant previous studies coupled with key informant interview of 116 conveniently selected participants. Using this approach, the paper was able to examine the rate of poverty among vulnerable Nigerians before and during the outbreak of COVID-19, as well as discussing some social factors believed to be contributing to the high rate of poverty such as: bad leadership, corruption and illiteracy. Assessment of recent and many previous government’s social intervention programmes aimed at reducing high rate of poverty and economic hardship confronting vulnerable people in Nigeria reveals that those programmes were grossly ineffective in achieving their mandates of reducing poverty, due to policy inconsistency, poor implementation, over-secrecy of guidelines involved, lack of transparency in the entire process and corruption on the part of the government officials in charge of the programmes. The study concluded that the outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic in Nigeria has triggered another form of financial hardship and thereby worsened the existing poverty status of most vulnerable people in the country. It is therefore suggested that government must pay more attention to poverty reduction strategies, through the introduction of more pro-poor people programmes, that will be grounded on transparency, accountability and sincerity of purpose, in order to progressively and drastically reduce the country’s high rate of poverty that has recently been aggravated by the outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic.</p> Kamal A. Odunjo-Saka Kamorudeen Adegboyega J. Shola Omotola Abimbola A. Akanni Copyright (c) 2021 Ife Social Sciences Review 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 29 1 129 144 Moderating Effect of Liquidity on the Relationship Between Capital Structure and Profitability: Evidence from Listed Deposit Money Banks in Nigeria https://issr.oauife.edu.ng/index.php/issr/article/view/131 <p>Over the last ten years, banks profitability were not favorable as banks’ financial reports indicated declined profitability, negative retained earnings, net loss and fluctuating net profit which led to the acquisition of some banks by others. The study covered fifteen listed banks as its sample size from 2010-2019. Secondary data were used, sourced from Nigeria Stock Exchange facts book for the period. The methodology used was descriptive research design and random effects estimate was adopted to test the hypotheses. The results revealed that, customers’ savings had a positive and statistically significant effect on return on assets. Loans advances had a negative relationship and insignificant effect on return on assets. Capital investment was positively and insignificant with return on assets and retained earnings showed a negative relationship and statistically significant with return on assets. The overall model results confirmed that, moderating effect of liquidity had significant effect on firms’ profitability of listed deposit money banks in Nigeria. The study recommended that, banks should depend more on customers’ deposits as a means of borrowing on short term basis to finance their businesses and encourage higher rate of undistributed earnings out of profits to serve as internal source of funds of listed deposit money banks in Nigeria as it bears no costs on the firms.</p> Rufai M. Abdulrahman Copyright (c) 2021 Ife Social Sciences Review 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 29 1 145 157 Perceived Social Support, Life Optimism and Psychological Adjustment of Sickle Cell Anaemia Patients in Ile-Ife, Nigeria https://issr.oauife.edu.ng/index.php/issr/article/view/133 <p>The study investigated the level of psychological adjustment, perceived social support and life optimism of Sickle Cell Anaemia (SCA) patients in Ile-Ife and determined the influence of perceived social support and life optimism on their psychological adjustment. The study adopted the descriptive survey research design. The population of the study comprised of all Sickle Cell Anaemia patients in Ile-Ife, Osun state. Two Health Care Centres, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital Complex (OAUTHC) and Obafemi Awolowo University Health Centre (OAUHC) were selected using purposive sampling technique based on the availability of the Sickle Cell Anaemia clinics. A total of one hundred (100) SCA patients were selected from these clinics using a proportionate sampling method, eighty (80) SCA patients were selected from OAUTHC while Twenty (20) SCA patients were selected from OAUHC. Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R), The Adjustment Inventory (TAI) and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPPS) were used to collect data for the study. The results revealed that overall, SCA Patients in Ile-Ife exhibited an average level of psychological adjustment (50.5%) and the adult married patients were more psychologically adjusted than the younger group who were unmarried. Results also revealed that there was a significant influence of social support on the psychological adjustment of SCA patients. The study concluded that social support and life optimism are critical factors for the psychological adjustment of SCA patients in Ile-Ife.</p> Juliana B. Olusoji Ajibike O. Anuodo Adebayo J. Obadiora Copyright (c) 2021 Ife Social Sciences Review 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 29 1 158 165