Ife Social Sciences Review https://issr.oauife.edu.ng/index.php/issr <p><strong><em>Ife Social Sciences Review</em></strong> is a journal of the Faculty of Social Sciences, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife.<em> Its </em>an international and interdisciplinary forum for the dissemination of <em>scholarly papers in the broad areas of social and management sciences. </em>We publish original research articles (both empirical and theoretical), reviews, position papers and commentaries on <em>social and management</em> issues, to inform current research, policy and practice in all areas of common interest to social scientists, management practitioners, and policy makers. The journal publishes material relevant to any aspect of <em>social and management sciences</em> from a wide range of social science disciplines (anthropology, economics, epidemiology, demography, geography, management , political science , policy, psychology, and sociology), and materials relevant to the social sciences from any of the professions concerned with physical, built environment, and management, health policy and organization. We encourage material which is of general interest to an international readership. The journal will be published two times a year- June and December.</p> en-US remiadediji2003@yahoo.co.uk (Remi Adediji) gbenga.olasupo@oauife.edu.ng (Matthew Olasupo) Fri, 16 Apr 2021 10:02:00 +0000 OJS 3.3.0.5 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Influence of Religious Affiliation on the Observance of Civil Service Work Ethics in Osun State https://issr.oauife.edu.ng/index.php/issr/article/view/102 <p>Ethical behaviour for civil servants worldwide is proxied by codes of discipline, loyalty, honesty, courage, cooperation, tact or skilfulness, and kindness, among others. These are behavioural codes any religion should ensure. What is observable in many states of Nigeria raises curiosity on the expected complementary roles of religion and work ethics among civil servants, despite the noble level of religiosity in the country. This study, therefore, set out to, examine the level of awareness of work ethics in the civil service of <br>Osun State; and determine the influence of the religious affiliation on the observance of civil service work ethics. A sample of 337 males and 217 females was drawn proportionally from six core ministries namely: Education, Finance, Agriculture, Works and Transportation, Health and Environment of the Osun State Civil Service. A semi-structured questionnaire was employed as instrument to collect data. The analysis of data was done using percentages, chi-square and multinomial logit model. The univariate analysis was employed to measure interaction effects of demographic variables. The results showed that there was high level of awareness of work ethics among the three categories of staff in the civil service of Osun State; 96.7% of the Officers, 96.1% of General duty staff and all the Technical officers were aware of and knowledgeable about the work ethics required in the discharge of their duties. The results also revealed that civil servants who were Muslims tend to prefer high observance of work ethics relative to their Christian colleagues when other factors were held constant. The study concluded that religious affiliation of civil servants has no significant influence on their observance of work ethics.</p> O Dr Asifat, Ademola L. Adisa Copyright (c) 2021 https://issr.oauife.edu.ng/index.php/issr/article/view/102 Wed, 01 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Correlational Analysis of Training Outlay and Organizational Output in A Small and Medium Enterprise in Nigeria https://issr.oauife.edu.ng/index.php/issr/article/view/103 <p>A well-trained and motivated workforce is a valuable asset to any organisation. Organizations, therefore, invest hugely in training and capacity building, to enhance the productivity of employees, as a sine qua non for increased organisational output. In this regard, the study examined the relationship between investment in employee training and output of SMEs in Nigeria. In the survey method, data on outlay and production output of the study company were analysed, using simple percentages; while the association was examined through the instrument of correlational analysis. Against the a priori expectation of a positive correlation, the result of the analysis showed a negative insignificant association, suggesting that the notion of all-time positive and significant correlation among training outlay, employee productivity and organisational output was only plausible. In explaining the curious result, factors which include training, supervision and motivation, were, among others, identified. Therefore, the study recommended that management should ensure that training must be conducted according to organizational needs and that proper supervision must also be provided, to guide employee performance on the job. Besides, adequate motivation should be provided to employees, to elicit performance, instead of resting on the efficacy of training alone.</p> Umar E. Mahmud, Yusuf A. Ogwuzebe, Yakubu I. Shehu Copyright (c) 2021 https://issr.oauife.edu.ng/index.php/issr/article/view/103 Wed, 01 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Background Determinants of Antenatal Care Utilization among Pregnant Women in Akwa Ibom, Nigeria https://issr.oauife.edu.ng/index.php/issr/article/view/104 <p>This study assessed the utilization pattern of Antenatal care with the view of identifying demographic factors affecting the utilization of antenatal care (ANC) among women of reproductive age in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Population based cross sectional survey was adopted in this study. The investigation was conducted between September and October 2007 from the catchment areas of ANC offering Primary Health Centers (PHCs) in five (5) local government areas in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. 1,061 women of reproductive age who gave birth in the last 6 months were used for the study. Result of this study showed that 65% of the respondents attended ANC with majority being between the ages of 25 – 35 years(p=0.008), Pentecostals(p=0.000), married(p=0.000) and having either secondary or higher education(p=0.000). The odds of attending ANC is statistically significant for women between the ages of 25 and 35 years(p=0.037), married women(p=0.000) and women with secondary(p=0.000) and higher education(p=0.000). The odds of higher ANC visits (≥ 4) are statistically significant with married women (p=0.01) and respondents with secondary (p=0.01) and higher education (p=0.00). The odds increases as the ANC visits increases (married: OR – 1.9(p=0.004), 2.2(p=0.001), 4.8(p=0.011); secondary education: OR – 2.3(p=0.01), 5.8(p=0.000), 12.1(p=0.016); higher education: OR – 11.4(p=0.000), 33.7(p=0.000), 64.7(p=0.000). This study thus concluded that demographic characteristics especially age; marital status and educational level significantly affect ANC attendance and the frequency of ANC visits.</p> O. O Ibikunle , S Asa , A. I Ibikunle , W Breiger Copyright (c) 2021 https://issr.oauife.edu.ng/index.php/issr/article/view/104 Wed, 01 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Individual and Household Factors influencing Voluntary Delayed Childbearing among Women in Osun State, Nigeria https://issr.oauife.edu.ng/index.php/issr/article/view/105 <p>This study examined the individual and household factors influencing voluntary delayed childbearing among women in Osun State, Nigeria. The sample size was 282 women aged 35-49 years. The outcome variable was voluntary delayed childbearing dichotomised into yes or no. The explanatory variables were sets of individual and household characteristics. Data were analysed using Stata 14. Findings show that 18.8% of the women had voluntarily delayed childbearing. Late age at first marriage (AOR=1.698, p&lt;0.01; 95% CI: 1.494-1.929), higher education (AOR=2.235, p&lt;0.01; 95% CI: 1.799-2.776), higher monthly income (AOR=2.622, p&lt;0.01; 95% CI: 1.850-3.714), participation in household decisions (AOR=1.224, p&lt;0.05; 95% CI: 1.074-1.394), and residing in households with highest wealth index (AOR=1.252, p&lt;0.05; 95% CI: 1.073-1.461) were significant individual and household factors influencing voluntary delayed childbearing. The study suggests the development of a Family Health Strategy to be integrated into the Osun State Development <br>Plan (2019-2028).</p> Adejo V. Ikoojo, Bola L. Solanke, Semiu A. Rahman Copyright (c) 2021 https://issr.oauife.edu.ng/index.php/issr/article/view/105 Wed, 01 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Analysis of Socio-Demographic and Pattern of Trip to Work by Civil Servants in Kaduna Metropolis, Nigeria https://issr.oauife.edu.ng/index.php/issr/article/view/106 <p>This study focused on the analysis of socio-demographic and pattern of trip to work by civil servants in Kaduna metropolis, Kaduna State, Nigeria. Data for this study were obtained through field survey and observation on the journey to work by the civil servants in Kaduna metropolis. Stratified random sampling technique was adopted for the collection of data on senior, middle and junior cadres of staff in the civil service. The results of the study showed 60.75% of the workers to be male, 70% with age not exceeding 45 years and 58% were married. Seventy per cent (70%) of the respondents have tertiary education and 58% had household size not exceeding 4. The choice of residence by the respondents was determined using variables such as the security of the area, location, proximity to the place of work and rental values. The workers that complained about traffic congestion during the journey to work constitute 53%, shortage of vehicles at peak periods constitute 15%, expensive transportation cost constitutes 26%, while few people complained about long-distance travel to work. Twenty-nine per cent of the workers used public buses to work, 26% used private cars, 24% utilized tricycles, and 13% used motorcycles while the rest utilized staff vehicles or trekked to work. The result of the analysis of the time of leaving home for work indicated 7% of the workers left by 6 a.m, 76% by 7 a. m and 17% departed for work not earlier than 8 am. Most of the respondents indicated that they close from the workplace at 4 p.m. The trip to work pattern showed that movement of people to a different area of workplaces in the morning and also moved toward different directions of home locations in the evening. The study suggested that gender inequality should be addressed in the civil service and that the existing public transport system should be improved upon by the State Government through adequate investment in the public transportation which would complement the existing stock by private providers.</p> Olumide A. Oluwole, Apikins H. Tarfa Copyright (c) 2021 https://issr.oauife.edu.ng/index.php/issr/article/view/106 Wed, 01 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Influence of Western Television Stations’ Programmes on the Lifestyles of Youth in Edo State, Nigeria https://issr.oauife.edu.ng/index.php/issr/article/view/107 <p>This study investigated the relationship between programmes on Western television stations and the lifestyles of youth in Edo State. Following the influx of foreign programmes on Nigerian media space, with an obvious decline in the cultural values and lifestyles, revamping of most youth in Nigeria; necessitate this study. The study was guided by the postulations of social cognitive and cultivation theories. The sample consisted of 400 youth, who were selected from the 18 Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Edo State using the multi-stage sampling technique. Data obtained were analysed and presented using frequency tables, simple percentage, mean scores and Pearson Product Moment Correlation using SPSS version 20 software. Findings showed that the youth in Edo State regularly watch programmes on Western television stations. Results also revealed that youth’ frequent watching of programmes on Western television stations did not make them behave violently. However, a significant relationship was established between youth’s watching of programmes on Western television stations and the lifestyles they exhibited especially as it relates to their dressing patterns, desire to travel abroad, learning, feeding habits and passion to be slim. The study concluded that the lifestyles of youth were largely products of programmes on Western Television Stations. Therefore, programmes on Western Television Stations could be considered as a formidable force in moulding the lifestyles of youth in Edo State, especially under the right guidance.</p> Festus P. Olise, Uduak L. Ekpenyong Copyright (c) 2021 https://issr.oauife.edu.ng/index.php/issr/article/view/107 Wed, 01 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 INEC, Political Parties and the Politics of Inconclusive Elections in the 2019 General Elections in Southeast Nigeria. https://issr.oauife.edu.ng/index.php/issr/article/view/108 <p>Nigeria has witnessed an increase in the declaration of inconclusive elections by INEC, especially in the southeast. This study interrogates INEC: Political Parties and the Politics of Inconclusive Elections in the 2019 General Elections in Nigeria especially in the southeast. The survey adopted a quantitative research design and experimental survey with multistage simple sampling techniques and applied Systems Theory as a theoretical framework. This study among other things discovered that; INEC contributed significantly to the inconclusiveness of 2019 general elections in the southeast region of Nigeria and attitudes of political parties gave rise to the inconclusiveness of 2019 general elections in the southeast geo-political zone of Nigeria. The study also revealed that the power of incumbency played a very significant role in 2019 general elections leading to the inconclusiveness of elections in the Southeast. For conclusive, free, and fair elections INEC must be non-partisan when conducting elections. Judges of the Election Petition Tribunals should be appointed by the Judicial Council of Nigeria instead of the executive arm of government; it is believed that if all these are put in place, Nigeria will be launched into a better political footing.</p> Joseph O. Nkwede, Amaka T. O. Emordi, Vincent N. Nwelom Copyright (c) 2021 https://issr.oauife.edu.ng/index.php/issr/article/view/108 Wed, 01 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Political Economy of Terrorism: A Comparative Analysis of Boko Haram and the Islamic State https://issr.oauife.edu.ng/index.php/issr/article/view/109 <p>Contrary to studies that highlight the lethality or morality of terrorism, this paper makes the case that there is need to interrogate acts of terrorism from a political economic point of view. It was argued that this excessive focus on the violence neglected an economic understanding of modern terrorism from various groups across the globe. This paper thus situated the incidence of the Boko Haram and the Islamic State terrorist groups on a political economic framework. The study showed that terrorism was not a ‘stupid thing’. The study further revealed that both terrorist groups and their sponsors were not psychopaths but rational beings who derived huge economic benefits from their violent acts. The paper concludes by arguing that until the economic reward on terrorism evaporates, such acts may never cease to occur in the regions and beyond.</p> Efehi R. Okoro Copyright (c) 2021 https://issr.oauife.edu.ng/index.php/issr/article/view/109 Wed, 01 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Shiite Uprising in Nigeria and Implications for Nigeria’s Relations with Iran: Role of the Media https://issr.oauife.edu.ng/index.php/issr/article/view/110 <p>The recent clashes between the Nigerian government and the Shiites, represented by the Islamic Movement of Nigeria (IMN), have raised concerns about the potential implications for Nigeria’s security and smooth diplomatic ties with the Republic of Iran. The State of Iran is well known to be a solid backer and support for the IMN movement in Nigeria and on the other hand, enjoys a cordial trade relationship with Nigeria. However, Nigeria’s cordial relationship with the likes of the United States, Saudi Arabia and Israel with whom Iran has rough diplomatic patches, is a serious source of concern for security experts who interpret the trade relations between Iran and Nigeria as merely a marriage of convenience with many potential dangers. The violent Shiite uprisings against the Nigerian State in recent times, instigated by the continuous illegal detention of Sheik Ibrahim El-Zakzaky, which is often met with severe use of force by security personnel, have been interpreted by some as providing a lee-way for Iran to use them as instruments of initiating terror and destabilizing Nigeria’s security system. The media reportage of the uprising may have been politically motivated and not from the point of view of religion as a fundamental right. This paper thus suggested that the Nigerian State be advised to be more diplomatic and shrewd in the handling of the Shiite crisis.</p> Gabriel O. Adeniji , Peter E. Egielewa Copyright (c) 2021 https://issr.oauife.edu.ng/index.php/issr/article/view/110 Wed, 01 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Self-Efficacy as A Determinant of Academic Resilience among Postgraduate Students https://issr.oauife.edu.ng/index.php/issr/article/view/111 <p>Academic resilience is a vital measure of training and performance which in turn help students in accomplishing great instructive results notwithstanding the circumstances. It is widely believed that previous success raises self-efficacy and belief in one’s abilities and thus leading to resilience. Our study investigated the level of academic resilience among postgraduate students of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife and examined the extent to which postgraduate students’ self-efficacy could determine their academic resilience. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. The population of the study comprised all postgraduate students of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State. The sample consisted of 581 postgraduate students who were selected using the multistage sampling procedure. Two research instruments: Academic Resilience Scale (ARS) and General Selfefficacy (GSE) were used to elicit information from the students. Percentages and linear regression were used to analyse the data. The results showed that 22.9%, 62.8%, 14.3% of postgraduate students of Obafemi Awolowo University demonstrated low, moderate, and high levels of academic resilience respectively. The results also showed that self-efficacy significantly influenced academic resilience of postgraduate students at (β = 0.244, F= 34.73, p&lt;0.05). The study concluded that self-efficacy was capable of enhancing academic resilience of postgraduate students in Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife.</p> Isaiah I. Olodude, Ajibike O. Anuodo, Olumide M. Owoeye Copyright (c) 2021 https://issr.oauife.edu.ng/index.php/issr/article/view/111 Wed, 01 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Marketing Mix and the Performance of Small and Medium Scale Enterprises (SMEs) in Nigeria https://issr.oauife.edu.ng/index.php/issr/article/view/112 <p>This study empirically examined the relationship between the marketing mix (4Ps) and performance of Small and Medium Scale Enterprises (SMEs) in Nigeria. Descriptive survey design was adopted for this study. The population for this study comprised of all operators of SMEs in Nigeria. This study examined the relationship between the four marketing mix (4Ps); product, price, promotion, place (distribution) and SMEs in Warri metropolis, Delta State, Nigeria. A structured questionnaire was used to elicit information from a sample of 50 respondents selected for the study. Descriptive statistical tools were used to present the demographic characteristics of the respondents, while inferential statistics were used to test the research hypotheses which include analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multiple regression analysis techniques. The study found out that product, price and place (distribution) have insignificant relationship with SMEs in Nigeria. It also found out that promotion has significant relationship with SMES in Nigeria. The study recommends that SMEs should adopt better packaging of their products in other to make it appealing and presentable to their present customers and potential customers, adopt a flexible and realistic pricing mechanism in other to boost customers’ patronage, engage in promotional activities such as trade fair, show exhibition amongst others and lastly adopt an effective and efficient channels of distribution in Nigeria.</p> Gabriel T. Kubeyinje, Timipre Bariweni Copyright (c) 2021 https://issr.oauife.edu.ng/index.php/issr/article/view/112 Wed, 01 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Availability, Adequacy and Utilization of Audio-Visual Materials for teaching and learning of Mathematics in A Local Government Area of Oyo State https://issr.oauife.edu.ng/index.php/issr/article/view/113 <p>This Study investigated the Availability, Adequacy and Utilization of Audio-Visual Materials for Teaching and Learning of Mathematics at the Junior Secondary Schools in Oluyole Local Government Area of Oyo State. A sample of 198 mathematics teachers selected from 20 Junior Secondary Schools participated in the study. Data collection was done using questionnaire tagged Availability, Adequacy and Utilization of Audio-Visual Materials for Mathematics Teaching Questionnaire (AAUAVMTQ). Frequency counts, percentages and mean were employed to analyze the data collected from the study. The results from the study revealed that teachers exhibit willingness towards the use of audio-visual materials in teaching and learning of mathematics at the junior secondary schools in Oluyole Local Government Area, Oyo State. Recommendations made from the study indicated that schools should make audio-visuals aids available and adequate for use during teaching and learning of mathematics as well as other school subjects that are not easily understood by students. It was also recommended that, teachers should be trained on the proper handling and utilizations of audio-visual materials to facilitate the teaching and learning of mathematics especially at the Junior Secondary School level of education.</p> Christianah O. Sam-Kayode, Ukamaka E. Akuche, Balikis A. Mustapha Copyright (c) 2021 https://issr.oauife.edu.ng/index.php/issr/article/view/113 Wed, 01 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Borehole Infrastructure, Knowledge and Compliance with Drilling Regulations in Southwestern Nigeria https://issr.oauife.edu.ng/index.php/issr/article/view/114 <p>This study examined perceived effects of indiscriminating sinking of boreholes in Ife Central (Osun State) and Mushin (Lagos State) Local Government Areas (LGAs). The objectives are to characterize existing water sources and boreholes characteristics in the selected settlements as well as examined their knowledge and compliance with borehole drilling regulations. The study used 200 structured questionnaires which were purposively administered on owners and users of boreholes in each of the study LGAs. Results show that although sources of water differ significantly within the two settlements (Ile-Ife =x2(200) =78.52, p&lt; 0.01); Mushin (x2(200) = 361.84, p&lt; 0.01)), most (63%) respondents sourced potable water from borehole. Rating of public pipe borne water stood at a low 12% (Ife Central) and 3% (Mushin) thereby resulting in high percentage 85.5 (Mushin) and 68.5 (Ife Central) lacking access to water from <br>the water works. With respect to borehole ownership, 62.5% and 30% (Ife Central and Mushin) respectively owned their own private boreholes while a joint value of 36% (Ife Central) and 69% (Mushin) use community/neighbourhood owned boreholes. Most of these<br>boreholes (94.5% in Mushin and 88% in Ife Central) are located within 500m of each other. In terms of knowledge and compliance to borehole standards, a significant difference (x2(400) = 18.52, p&lt; 0.01) between Ife Central and Mushin LGAs was recorded. Also, a few <br>respondents (18% in Mushin and 28.5% in Ife Central LGAs) considered any associated risk before sinking their boreholes. The study concluded that while poor performance of state owned waterworks may have prompted the sinking of boreholes in the study areas, the low level of awareness of the people on basic regulations and standards on borehole drilling as well associated risk may have contributed to the indiscriminate sinking of borehole in the areas of study.</p> David O. Baloye Copyright (c) 2021 https://issr.oauife.edu.ng/index.php/issr/article/view/114 Wed, 01 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Secondary School Students’ Perception of Evolution and Creationism: Implications for Learning and Performance https://issr.oauife.edu.ng/index.php/issr/article/view/115 <p>This study assessed Secondary School Student’s perception of the concept of evolution and creationism in Biology. Considering the central position that the subject of biology occupies among other science subjects, it became necessary to cast a look into students’ perception of the concept of evolution and creationism, its implication on learning and performance. The study adopted the survey research design. The population of the study consisted of students in all the public schools in Edo North and Edo South Senatorial Districts of Edo State. The stratified random sampling technique was used to distribute the population into subgroups of Muslim and Christian schools. The purposive random sampling technique was used in selecting four hundred and twenty students (420) from both Muslim and Christian schools so as to obtain a considerable number of Muslim students. Two instruments were used for data collection. The first is a 14-item questionnaire called Views on Evolution while the second is a 10-item achievement test on evolution which the students responded to. Data collected were analyzed using Chi-Square test and a one-way Analysis of Variance. The findings from the study revealed that the student’s religious beliefs did influenced their perceptions of the concept of evolution. However, there was no significant difference in the performance on the test of evolution by students of different religious groups and Christian sect with different views of evolution/creationism. Based on the findings, it was therefore recommended that, the topic should be taught in a way that it will not conflict with the students’ religious belief as well as encourage instructors teaching evolution and other controversial science topics to address students concerns and prior attitudes in a constructive and empathetic manner.</p> Noma V. David-Egbenusi, Christiana N. Omoifo Copyright (c) 2021 https://issr.oauife.edu.ng/index.php/issr/article/view/115 Wed, 01 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000